L-159 Insensitive Explosive Materials: 2. 2,6-Diamino-3,5-Dinitro-1,4-Pyrazine-1-Oxide ANPZO

October 2009
Dr Ernst-Christian Koch (Energetic Materials)

This report summarizes theoretical and experimental data gathered from the public domain on the insensitive explosive 2,6-diamino-3,5-dinitro-1,4-pyrazine-1-oxide, ANPZO, which is most often also referred to as LLM-105.

The title compound offers both high density, ρ = 1.913 g cm-3, and high thermal stability (DSC-onset = 310°C) and is more powerful than insensitive explosive TATB. It has a calculated detonation velocity at TMD of 8560 ms-1 and a detonation pressure of 33.4 GPa. The detonation temperature is 3587 K. So far ANPZO is very costly and thus may only be explored as an insensitive booster explosive. 43 references are given. For Part I. Insensitive Explosive Materials see Ref. [1].