TNT equivalency is commonly used to quantify the explosive effects of energetic materials and munitions. For scientific purposes, it is a means to compare the explosive effects delivered by different energetic compositions.
One of the challenges related to munitions safety is to make munitions insensitive to external stimuli (heating, operational threats, etc.) To reduce the violence of response of munitions to Insensitive Munitions threats, several mitigation technologies are used.
Rocket motors are designed to propel payloads towards their final destination by ejecting hot gases through a nozzle. The gases are produced by the combustion of fuel and oxidizers which can be either separated (hybrid combustion) or embedded into each other (gun propellant, propellant grain).
During the last decades, strong efforts have been made by the IM community to decrease the reaction level of munitions when submitted to standardized tests considered representative of operational threats such as fast and slow heating, bullet and fragment impacts, sympathetic reaction and shaped