Defect Lexicon Questionnaire

Dear Sir/Madam,
 
The  Munitions  Safety  Information  Analysis  Center  (MSIAC)  is  requested to  work  on classification of ammunition defects in order to prepare the 2020 workshop on defects. MSIAC has, therefore, developed a lexicon to aid the community.  
 
A first study was conducted to classify problems or issues leading to failure into three categories:
  • Processing problems (e.g. non-uniform solidification)
  • Property instabilities (e.g. corrosion)  
  • Defects (e.g. crack)
The focus for this lexicon is on defects. A simplified lexicon is being completed and we kindly ask you to contribute to it to help us develop a comprehensive lexicon. The sharing of experiences with other users can aid in this process.
 
All images used in this survey are from openly published sources.             
 
Instructions
Please scroll down the list of defects that are in alphabetical order.
 
For each defect please answer the question, “Do you know the defect?” This will help us understand which terms are regularly used.
 
For each term you recognise you have the opportunity to agree or disagree with the proposed definition. If you disagree please provide an alternate definition. We ask that you use the following rules in your proposed definition: a defect is defined as a discontinuity whose size, shape, orientation, or location makes it detrimental to the useful service of the part.
 
Lastly, we would appreciate additional images of the chosen defect to help build a better picture of each term. You are able to upload an image or a zip file per term (<2MB).
 
Personal Information
The defects are listed alphabetically.
Agglomerate/Aggregate
Proposed definition:
Combination of many particles or fibers into a larger solid mass. It generally occurs during an incomplete mixing. Its size varies from some micrometers to some centimeters.
TR20170424
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp tif pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Annular rings
Proposed definition:
Ring-shaped wrinkle around the propellant at the interface between the propellant and the case. It occurs during  assembly of different articles. Its size varies from some centimeters to one meter.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Anomaly
Proposed definition:
Unnamed problem or issue. It could be tangible or intangible. (e.g. a ballistic anomaly) 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Base Separation
Proposed definition:
Gap between the explosive cast and the steel shell casing which is caused by contraction of the energetic material as it cools after pouring.  It happens while ageing. It is several centimeters large.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Blister
Proposed definition:
Hollow rounded swelling that appears at the interface between the propellant and the liner. It is several centimeters wide.  
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Blowholes
Proposed definition:
Cavity which consist of a hole in a casting or a weld caused by gas entrapped during solidification or by the outgassing of trapped air during cure. Its size varies from some micrometers to some centimeters.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Bond(ing)
Proposed definition:
Space where two surfaces of material that are unbond start to join together during ageing. It is several centimeters wide. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Bubble
Proposed definition:
Spherical, internal void of gas trapped within a plastic during processing, it looks like small tears found in the binder. It is implied that it appears in a liquid phase. Its size varies from some micrometers to some centimeters.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Buckling
Proposed definition:
Unstable lateral material defection due to compressive action on the structural element involved, generally a case. It occurs during ageing and apply to the entire case. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Case Head Separation
Proposed definition:
Separation of the lower part of the case caused by a multiple firing and reloading. The case walls thin out until seperation. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Case Separation
Proposed definition:
Formation of a gap between the case and the liner or the case and the propellant. It is several centimeters large.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Caverns
Proposed definition:
Large void in the bulk that is several centimeters to one meter large. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Cavity
Proposed definition:
Void in the bulk caused by the casting process either by entrapped gas or shrinkage. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Chasm
Proposed definition:
Deep crack. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Color variation
Proposed definition:
Visible change of color at the surface of a material due to a chemical or physical reaction. It can be some centimeters to one meter long. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Crack
Proposed definition:
Separation which consists of a long and narrow gap in the bulk or near a free surface. It is several centimeters to one meter long. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Crack (micro)
Proposed definition:
Separation which consists of a long and narrow gap along a grain. It is some milimeters long. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Debond(ing)
Proposed definition:

Adhesion failure or separation that occurrs in an area within a bonded interface 1) debonding between the propellant (initially glued to the insulation layer) and the insulation layer or 2) debonding of the solid particles within the polymeric matrix for plastic-bonded energetic materials (dewetting). 
Debond sometimes reffers as a deliberate separation. Disbond or unbond suits better.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Decohesion
Proposed definition:

Separation of the polymer binder with the grain. Syn: Dewetting. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Defect
Proposed definition:

A discontinuity whose size, shape, orientation, or location makes it detrimental to the useful service of the part in which it occurs. A discontinuity which by nature or accumulated effect render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specification. This term designates rejectability.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Delamination
Proposed definition:
Separation between the propellant and the insulation layer. Other term: debond or debonding. It is some centimeters to one meter large. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Dent
Proposed definition:
Slight hollow in a hard even surface caused by pressure or by being hit. It is several milimeters to a few centimeters large. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Depression
Proposed definition:
Concave features on a crystal that usually covers a largrt area, sometimes containing a hole. It is some micrometers wide. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
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Dewetting
Proposed definition:

Separation of the polymer binder with the grain. Preferred term: Decohesion. It can lead to vacuole formation.
Very large stress concentrations occur between close rigid particles when the particles are slightly displaced from each other, especially if the matrix material is nearly incompressible as propellant polymeric binders generally are. These stress concentrations can cause a particle to dewet or debond from the binder matrix. If the bond strength exceeds the cohesive strength of the binder, it will tear.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Disbond
Proposed definition:

Adhesion failure or separation that occurrs in an area within a bonded interface 1) debonding between the propellant (initially glued to the insulation layer) and the insulation layer or 2) debonding of the solid particles within the polymeric matrix for plastic-bonded energetic materials (dewetting). 
Debond sometimes reffers as a deliberate separation. Disbond or unbond suits better.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Discontinuity
Proposed definition:
Imperfection or interruption  in  the  normal  physical characteristics or structure of an object.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Dislocation
Proposed definition:
Crystal flaw which consist in a line in which the atoms are not arranged in a perfect latticelike structure. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
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Entrapment
Proposed definition:

Area in which material is being trapped between loose flaps. Loose flaps are provided in the motor cases to accommodate the shrinkage of propellant during curing. In finishing operation these spaces are filled with resin. Due to improper filling of loose flap gaps voids may appear between loose flap and fixed insulation, which may create propellant entrapment.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Filaments
Proposed definition:

Elongation of polymeric material between two surfaces; non-continuous slender thread-like object or fibre. The smallest unit of fibrous material. Filaments usually are of extreme length and a very small diameter, usually less than 25 µm. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Fissure
Proposed definition:

Crack which is characterised by a a linear discontinuity with a large axial and circumferential component and a minimal radial component. Separate but lineal features separated by 6.35 mm or less shall be considered a single continuous fissure.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Flaw
Proposed definition:
Imperfection which may prevent an item from functionning as intended and may result in a defect. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Foam
Proposed definition:
Extreme presence of bubbles. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Fracture
Proposed definition:
Separation of an object into two or more pieces. Breaking or cracking of a material usually under an applied tensile stress. The appearance of a fracture surface usually posesses characteristics indicative of the type of fracture which has occured. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Gap
Proposed definition:
Separation between the energetic material and the liner. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Gouge
Proposed definition:
A cut or a groove that may be created by a tool or by plasma exposure

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Heat checks
Proposed definition:

Heat checks are most often located on surfaces that correspond to areas in the die which are subject to high thermal stresses or where the liquid metal flows at high speeds causing erosion of the mold or die cavity . These defects can also be caused by extended mold usage or die wear, and are open to the surface, resulting in decreased structural integrity.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Hole
Proposed definition:

Holllow place in a solid body or surface

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Hole (crystal)
Proposed definition:

Small black points on the body of a crystal with sharp edges. These are some micrometers wide. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Inclusion
Proposed definition:

Impurity in a crystal. These are cavities entrapped in the crystal, whose sizes are in the range 1–50 mm. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
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Inhomogeneity
Proposed definition:

Area of a component in which the density or the composition is significantly different from the rest of the component. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Interface defect
Proposed definition:

Defects which are located at the interface between two materials. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Knobs
Proposed definition:
Protusion from the main body of a crystal. It is visible at a nano to micro scale.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Lamination
Proposed definition:
Division of a component into distinct elements. This generic term refers to base/case separation and gaps.  
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Loss of Material (LOM)
Proposed definition:
Hole at the surface of a material that originates from the drop of a foreign body object. The size depends on the the foreign body object.
 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Occluded solvent
Proposed definition:
Solvent trapped in a material.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Pipe (or piping)
Proposed definition:
Elongated void in the center of the propellant due to solidification shrinkage after a casting process. It is in the axis of the propellant. It can be some centimeters to one meter long.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Pit
Proposed definition:
Small, regular or irregular crater in the surface of a material created by exposure to the environment, for example, corrosion, wear, or thermal cycling. They are several centimeters wide. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Pore
Proposed definition:
Small opening, vois, interstice, or channel within a consolidated solid mass, usually larger than atomic or molecular dimensions. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Porosity (inter)
Proposed definition:
Set of fine holes or pores within a solid; the amount of these pores is expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the solid. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Porosity (intra)
Proposed definition:
Set of fine holes or pores within a grain; the amount of these pores is expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the solid.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Rough surface
Proposed definition:
High deviation in the direction of the normal vector of the real surface of a solid.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Rough surface (crystal)
Proposed definition:
High deviation in the direction of the normal vector of the real surface of a crystal.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Scratch
Proposed definition:
Cut or damage made on a surface with something sharp or rough. It is usually some milimeters to one centimeter long. 
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Seam
Proposed definition:
Discontinuity in a part caused by an incomplete joining of material during forming. It is some centimeters long and mostly concerns the casing.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Separation
Proposed definition:
Division of a component into distinct elements. This generic term refers to base/case separation and gaps.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Sink mark
Proposed definition:
Small depression at the surface of something due to an irregular surface molding. It results from localized shrinkage. These depressions are typically very small.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Spall Powdering
Proposed definition:
Material, especially small pieces of rock, detached from a surface by passage of a shock. The spall may be open, partially open or a fissure within the shocked material. It is generally visible inside the nozzle.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Spider Line (or Crack)
Proposed definition:
Asperity which ressembles a spider web on the surface of a part. It has a large axial and radial component with a minimal  circumferential component.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Striation
Proposed definition:

Pattern of lines or grooves on the surface of something. when a bullet is fired through the barrel of a gun, it is scratched along its length by minute imperfections in the bore of this barrel. These scratches form straight parallel lines consisting of ridges and valleys called striations or striae. These striae are engraved into the surface of the projectile during its passage through the bore.They are some centimeters long. 

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Surface defect
Proposed definition:

Defect which is localised on the surface of a component.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Twinned crystal
Proposed definition:
Intergrowth of two seperate crystals within a crystal. It is caused by intense shear stress. It is less than a milimiter in size.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Unbonds
Proposed definition:

Adhesion failure or separation that occurrs in an area within a bonded interface 1) debonding between the propellant (initially glued to the insulation layer) and the insulation layer or 2) debonding of the solid particles within the polymeric matrix for plastic-bonded energetic materials (dewetting).
Debond sometimes reffers as a deliberate separation. Disbond or unbond suits better.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Vacuoles
Proposed definition:

Absence of material in the bulk. Loading of the composite structure produces stress concentrations around the oxidizers, which may lead to the breakdown of the binder. After the binder is broken, it is pulled away from the solids causing the formation of micro-voids or vacuoles that can lead to tears.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Void
Proposed definition:

Pore between particles in an enclosed cavities  within the bulk of a casting caused by entrapped gas or shrinkage.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Wormhole
Proposed definition:

Fine voids within the material (due to insufficient binder)  that form a network of channels throughout the grain .It is several micrometers long.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Wrinkle
Proposed definition:

Uneven and wavy surface that appears when a casing that is too wet and too soft is compressed downward in the casing retainer during assembly. It applies to the entire case.

Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png bmp pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Are there any defect missing? If you wish to add a defect that is not mentioned in the lexicon, be careful not to add a processing problem or a property instability. Keep in mind that according to ASM International, a defect is defined as a discontinuity whose size, shape, orientation, or location makes it detrimental to the useful service of the part in which it occurs. It is a discontinuity which by nature or accumulated effect render a part or product unable to meet minimum applicable acceptance standards or specification. This term designates rejectability.
Files must be less than 2 MB.
Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png pdf doc docx ppt pptx xls xlsx rar zip.
Thank you for your help.